Crop rotation is the practice of utilizing crops to benefit the competitive advantage of other vegetables.
This practice makes the soil rejuvenated, resulting in healthy plant growth, and can also make the garden more productive and self-reliant in resources.
The idea behind crop rotation is to plant vegetables in a rotating cycle in a specific area over the seasons.
The primary purpose of this method is to bring depleted nutrients back into the soil to prevent pests and soil-borne diseases away from your garden.
Crop rotation means to grow various crops needed to ensure the garden’s profitability while continuously establishing soil conditions for long-term productivity.
No garden is too small for crop rotation, and utilizing a simple map will help you plan and plant various crops in the same plot the following year.
All you have to do is to create a crop rotation plan and make a list of the vegetables that you want to grow in your garden.
Like large scale farmers, the small scale vegetable growers also encounter problems like a drop in plant health and productivity if crops are grown in the same plot every year. In addition to that, there will be nutrient deficiency causing the crops to grow poorly.
Crop rotation is an effective and inexpensive way to prevent these troubles – the principle is simple – do not plant the same vegetable in the same area year after year.
Benefits of Crop Rotation
1) Lessen the Possibility of Soil Erosion
Crop rotation is a common practice that maintains and improves the physical and biological conditions of the soil because of its soil saving potential.
The practice is often used to lessen the possibility of soil erosion which helps establish good soil structure.
Crops have different root structures, and rotation schemes will allow the plant roots to penetrate deeper, causing the topsoil to establish gradually.
The process of combining the practice of conservation tilling and crop rotation is effective in improving soil textures and conditions.
Crop rotation helps reduce any raindrop impact that causes erosion in the soil. Plants like beans and peas preserve the soil during heavy rainfall by providing the ‘ground full crop cover.’
However, small scale gardeners rely on mulch and compost, and also short term winter cover crops in place of hay rotations or multi-season crops. And likewise, this system is efficient and profitable too.
2) Increase in Soil Nutrients
One of the primary benefits of crop rotation is to replenish lost nitrogen in your garden through other crops.
Some plants in the rotation scheme need to eliminate the need for nitrogen, while other crops accumulate phosphorus or potassium.
Each crop has a different amount of mineral requirement from the soil, and if you grow the same plant each year, after some time, minerals that are essential for plant growth will be fully depleted.
However, crop rotation allows the land to self regenerate without the need to add more nutrients through fertilizers. It also means rotation practice helps nutrients return to the soil without synthetic inputs.
Growing crops like legumes increase nitrogen in the soil as they contain organisms that refill nitrogen back.
3) Decrease Pests Problems and Diseases
Crop rotation is essential if you want to grow healthy crops and avoid nasty pests and plant diseases.
Pests and diseases will likely swarm and cause significant garden issues if the same vegetables are grown in the same garden for more than a season, may it be the smallest vegetable plot or the big farm allotment.
Organic gardening combined with the method of crop rotation, makes excellent protection against all kinds of pests and soil-borne diseases in your garden.
Like insects, plant diseases can also overwinter in the plant’s leaves, roots, and even under your soil, so preparing your garden for winter is essential. The crop rotation scheme helps counter these diseases from returning the following year.
The rotation of crops controls the progress of pest populations, by obstructing pest life cycles, altering pest habitats, and it hinders possible invasion of potential diseases.
Rotation scheme has become an integral part of the pest management program because of its ability to decrease the build-up of pathogens that often occurs when the same plant is grown continuously in the same year.
4) Increase Crop Fertility
Growing the same crops over some time in the same spot will lead to the depletion of specific nutrients to the soil.
Crops planted in your garden in the rotation method will increase soil fertility. Every crop both absorbs and releases various types of nutrients into the soil. Some plants are grown to replenish deficient nutrients, while others absorb available nutrients in abundance.
Another way to improve soil fertility and structure is to plant deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants alternately.
The supply of soil nitrogen is particularly significant in rotations that include legume crops. Microorganisms will decompose the nitrogen from legume residues, making it available in the subsequent crops.
The Crop Rotation Cycle in Your Vegetable Garden
A rotational cycle of growing vegetables helps restore the organic nutrients in your garden soil, which is the vital key to a healthy garden.
Depending on your location, the need for soil amendments vary. And to find out what type of soil your garden has, you can either send a sample to a reputable soil testing lab or do the soil pH test at home using vinegar, baking soda, and red cabbage juice.
Knowing the right pH of your garden soil will allow you to determine what kind of amendments there are to improve your garden and enable you to get plants suitable to grow in those specific soil conditions.
Understanding the relationship between nitrogen and crop rotation is essential when planning a crop rotation cycle.
Crop rotation influences the conversion of organic nitrogen to mineral nitrogen by modifying soil moisture, soil temperature, soil pH, plant residue, and tilling.
How Crop Rotation Works
Professor Philip Poole of John Innes Centre said, “Changing the crop species massively changes the content of microbes in the soil, which in turn helps the plant to acquire nutrients, regulate growth and protect itself against pests and diseases, boosting yield.”
This easy to manage crop rotation plan has a three to four-year cycle depending on the size of your garden.
The average period is sufficient enough to prevent the build-up of soil problems by allowing pests and soil-borne diseases to decline to a harmless state.
After splitting your garden space into several groups, the plants, along with its family, should not occupy the same spot more than once in four years.
Vegetables like rhubarb, asparagus, soft fruit, and artichoke are perennials. You will not replant them annually, so you have to provide them with their own space.
In the traditional crop rotation method, dividing your crops into four groups is recommended. Here they are:
- Leafy Greens
- Fruit-bearing Vegetables
- Root Vegetables
The following provides you with a few lists of each of the plant families. You can always try to add more according to your preference.
- Bok Choy
- Brussels Sprout
The group of leafy greens starts gardening very close to when the winter season comes to an end.
Most of these plants require a lot of nitrogen in their growing season. It is the nitrogen that helps their leaves and stems grow stronger.
Corn is often planted along with leafy green groups because this plant is also nitrogen hungry.
Adding soil amendments like compost and aged manure to your garden before planting leafy green plants is beneficial for plentiful produce. Because you’ve gone through the entire year of crop rotation, your soil doesn’t have the adequate nitrogen these plants require.
However, after you’ve gone through the entire four-crop rotation cycle, nitrogen levels are back into the soil, and you won’t need to add more amendments.
- Sweet corn
- Bell pepper
- Lady’s Finger
An easy way to identify this group is that they have flowers that develop into vegetable fruits. Unlike leafy greens, the fruit-bearing group of vegetables doesn’t need much nitrogen.
Excessive absorption of nitrogen will give them lots of lush leaves, yet small fruits. Fruit-bearing crops prefer phosphorus to help them grow blossoms and set fruit.
Crops can take up phosphorus only from the soil, and this depends on the replenishment available in the garden.
The deficiency of phosphorus often results in reduced growth and yield, late maturity, and unusual purpling of color on the lower plant leaves, particularly on younger plants.
- Sweet potato
Root veggies require more potassium to have a healthy root system and even less nitrogen than fruit-bearing crops.
Potassium is one of the essential nutrients your plant needs. The accumulation of these nutrients at an early stage of growth will encourage storing nitrogen too.
One of the main goals of potassium is to increase the efficiency of utilizing nitrogen.
Lack of potassium can cause a weak root system and feeble stems and stalks, and it usually takes a little longer for this element to be available back into the soil.
- Bush bean
- Black Gram
- Pole Bean
- Broad Bean
- Mung Bean
Legumes are known to replenish nitrogen back into your garden. These plants contain microorganisms that absorb nitrogen from the air and then is released into the soil.
The family of legumes has the amazing ability to replenish nitrogen back into the soil they are growing. It makes them an excellent crop to grow after plants that tend to deplete the soil’s nutrients.
An Example of the Four-Year Cycle Crop Rotation
Veggies and fruits that belong to a family of related plants use the same nutrients and often have the same disease and pest problems.
Growing the same crops or related crop families in the same spot in your garden year after year will deplete the soil of some specific nutrients resulting in a potential build-up of soil-borne diseases and pests.
The beneficial rotation system would be planting the same crop in the same bed every four years, giving each bed three years off. Here are some tips:
- Divide your growing space into several specific areas.
- Classify the plants you want to grow and keep plants of the same type together in the same area.
- Annually, alternate the plants you grow in each given area. Doing so will prevent pests and diseases from infesting the garden.
Plot 1: Legumes
Plot 2: Leafy Greens
Plot 3: Root Vegetables
Plot 4: Fruit-bearing Vegetables
Plot 1: Leafy Greens
Plot 2: Root Vegetables
Plot 3: Fruit-bearing Vegetables
Plot 4: Legumes
Plot 1: Root Vegetables
Plot 2: Fruit-bearing Vegetables
Plot 3: Legumes
Plot 4: Leafy Greens
Plot 1: Fruit-bearing Vegetables
Plot 2: Legumes
Plot 3: Leafy Greens
Plot 4: Root Vegetables
Final Thoughts On Crop Rotation
The primary purpose of crop rotation is to maintain nutrients, microorganisms, and organic matter necessary for healthy soil in organic gardening.
It is also the practice designed to control pests and diseases, manage nutrient requirements and most especially aid to establish ideal soil conditions.
It has been a gardening technique used for thousands of years now. You can also practice the principle of rotation in your vegetable plot at home successfully. The list of vegetable plants in each family will help you apply the scheme of rotating crops.
Though it is challenging in a small garden with only one or two beds, crop rotation by plant family is probably the most traditional way to rotate crops.
Just keep in mind that in the rotation practice, plants of the same family are only grown in the same spot following the entire 4-year cycle. If you have any questions, don’t hesitant to ask in the comment section below.